Martial artists often harbor misunderstandings about Japanese jujitsu: It’s a glorified form of judo ... it’s a mutant form of aikido ... it’s a kind of karate with a few sweeps and throws tossed in. All are wrong.

Newcomers to Japanese jujitsu often get confused during their first class. What's going on in a dojo where students are wearing judo uniforms but practicing blocks and strikes? Shouldn't they be wearing karate uniforms because, after all, they're doing “karate"? Jujitsu is all about ground work, isn't it?

No, it isn't.

Plenty of martial artists harbor misunderstandings about jujitsu. One of the biggest is that it's a glorified form of judo. Or that it's a mutant form of aikido. Or that it's a kind of karate with a few sweeps and throws tossed in. That's three strikes!


Traditional jujitsu is actually the parent art of judo, aikido and several styles of karate. In essence, jujitsu is a blend of all three because it's the traditional source of all three. Because jujitsu is the parent, it's not unusual to see students practicing blocks and counterstrikes with, although more often without, protective padding.

To an inexperienced observer, the execution of a block or counterstrike may not be noticed as the jujitsu stylist moves through a self-defense technique. The observer may see the block, possibly a deflection, probably a throw or a rapid series of movements used to establish a control hold that suddenly becomes apparent.

Or he may suddenly realize that the attacker is on the ground and have no idea what caused that to happen.

However, the initial block/deflection and counterstrike are critical and essential elements of effective jujitsu. The block/deflection stops the attacker's momentum or redirects it. It destroys the continuity of his attack and makes him more vulnerable.

The counterstrike, or atemi waza, has several roles. First, it can cause physical damage. A properly delivered strike to the nose, cheekbone, collarbone or floating ribs can cause a fracture. None of those injuries is necessarily serious, but each can inflict pain and instill fear. All that can be accomplished with minimal force as long as proper execution is there.

A counterstrike can also stun an assailant or the attacking extremity. A solid block to the forearm, if it strikes a nerve (either halfway down the forearm at the base of the brachioradialis or one-third down the inside of the forearm on the ulnar nerve), can disable the limb. Delivered with sufficient power, it might even fracture the forearm, making the block a counterstrike.

Many years ago, I was teaching jujitsu at the junior high where I worked as a teacher. One student was doing his best to avoid a physical confrontation with another student. Finally, the bully swung at him, and the jujitsu student simply blocked the kid's forearm. The impact fractured the assailant's arm and immediately ended the fight.

Normally, both parties would have been suspended, but because of the number of witnesses who verified my student's attempts to avoid a confrontation, the defender stayed in school. Meanwhile, the aggressor went to the hospital.


Jujitsu teaches methods for countering using your blocking/deflecting hand, as well as your free hand. It encompasses techniques that can stun an attacker by striking a nerve or applying pressure with one finger. The latter tends to be more effective because considerably less force is necessary and because the pressure can be attenuated to deliver just the right amount of pain.

The opponent attempts a right punch, and George Kirby blocks it aggressively to create a distraction (1). The defensive action opens the man to Kirby's knee strike, which targets his groin (2). As the opponent bends forward, Kirby threads his left arm under the man's right arm (3). Opposite view: The jujutsu practitioner applies an arm lock/shoulder lock (4). With his right hand, he grabs the man's right upper sleeve or shoulder to “help" him down into a rear shoulder-lock submission or dislocation (5).

When necessary, however, jujitsu counterstrikes can drop an attacker in a heartbeat. To do that, you must focus on a sensitive area of your opponent's body that's readily accessible. For example, you might choose a blow to the base of the larynx at the jugular notch or a double-forearm strike to the sides of the neck, stunning the auricular, hypoglossal or vagus nerve centers. Again, neither response requires much power, just proper execution.

If the block/counterstrike causes injury or brings the attacker down, that's great, but it's not your primary intent. Impact techniques are more often used as a distraction. The atemi waza will make the attacker think of something else, thus lengthening his reaction time and enabling you to do what you really want to do — usually a throw, takedown or come-along technique. The concept follows one of Sun Tzu's strategies:

If you can confuse or distract your enemy with a smaller force [of soldiers], it will be easier to attack him more effectively with your main force because he will have to allocate valuable resources to deal with the smaller force.

You may be thinking, Why use a counterstrike as a distraction? Why not just use an effective single strike and be done with your assailant? It sure would be a lot simpler, wouldn't it?

Yes, it would. However, the real world doesn't work that way. An old saying reminds us not to put all our eggs in one basket. If you base your response to an attack on the assumption that one strike will finish your assailant, what do you do if it doesn't? You need to develop a whole series of moves that can be used as a follow-up to your first counter. Those moves can be additional strikes, throws, takedowns or pins.

Furthermore, the laws of the United States require that any actions you take while defending yourself on the street be “measured." In most cases, you can't go all out like you've been trained to do in the dojo. If you pulverize your assailant, you may be charged with using excessive force.

You may disagree with this concept, but it's part of the legal system. Nevertheless, the law isn't the main reason you should elect to use a counterstrike as a distraction rather than a technique designed to cause serious injury.

Using a counterstrike to distract enables you to more effectively control your assailant. When he's controlled, it's less likely that severe injury will have to be inflicted. On the other hand, once you have control, severe injury can be inflicted if the condition warrants — such as during an assault with a deadly weapon or by multiple attackers.

Jujitsu: Toward One Technique is George Kirby's latest book.

If a thug grabs your shirt, the situation might warrant only a release technique and perhaps a control hold. But if he pulls a knife, you can switch modes and break his wrist or arm. The situation determines what's reasonable.


If you know jujitsu, your counterstrike may not even be noticed by the casual observer. However, it's probably the most important step in effective self-defense when it's combined with proper body movement. That movement, by the way, is designed to get you out of the way of the attack and into a position to follow through with whatever you've planned to do after the counterstrike but before the assailant realizes that the counterstrike was merely a distraction.

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Never assume any move or technique will work. If a counterstrike effectively stuns or injures the assailant, you may continue into a follow-through simply as a completion of the technique. If you recognize that the initial counterstrike has been effective, you can back off. However, that's difficult to do because most martial arts training teaches you to follow through.

Other Arts

Using a block/deflection before a counterstrike is also integral to arts related to traditional jujitsu. In aikido, the block is usually a deflection to redirect the attacker's ki. The counterstrike is the movement of your same-side or opposite-side arm or hand to continue his momentum, usually in a circular direction around your body. Sometimes a joint is locked in the process.

In judo, things are a bit more esoteric. Off-balancing your opponent is analogous to the deflection, and executing a throw can be seen as the counterstrike. In ground work, the block/deflection phase may entail moving part of your opponent or yourself to prevent the setting of a hold or pin. It's immediately followed by an elbow or knee thrust to create more space and a distraction for your counter.

No matter the art, an effective block/deflection that's coupled with a counterstrike causes your opponent to lose his internal balance and sense of continuity, whether he's standing or on the ground. The concept, called kuzushi, holds that once continuity is broken, your technique — whatever it may be — has a greater chance of succeeding.

About the author: George Kirby has taught jujitsu since 1967. The newest book from this Black Belt Hall of Famer is Jujitsu: Toward One Technique. Order your copy here.

Photos by Thomas Sanders

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In the martial arts, we voluntarily subject ourselves to conflict in a training environment so we can transcend conflict in the real world. After all, we wouldn't knowingly train in a style that makes us weaker or worsens our position. The irony of all this is that we don't want to fight our opponent. We prefer to work with what an opponent gives us to turn the tide in our favor, to resolve the situation effectively and efficiently.The Japanese have a word for this: sabaki. It means to work with energy efficiently. When we train with the sabaki mindset, we receive our opponent's attack, almost as a gift. Doing so requires less physical effort and frees up our mental operating system so it can determine the most efficient solution to the conflict.In this essay, I will present a brief history of sabaki, as well as break down the sabaki method using Miyamoto Musashi's five elements

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"Unlike karate training outside a combat zone," Cpt. Yoon explained, "it is important here that the troops be able to turn their techniques into devastating, bone-crushing blows. There is no place for mild strikes in combat when a VC is trying to push a bayonet into your stomach."

For that reason, the compound is peppered with makiwara punching boards, and the Korean Tigers spend much time conditioning the weapons of taekwondo. Also, throughout Vietnam there are plenty of sandbags, which are used to protect all kinds of constructions. They make excellent striking bags for a karateman.

The next unit in the schedule is to display free fighting. The commander again explains that this form of fighting is used to test the Tigers' skills against one another rather than to demonstrate the actual methods of close-quarters combat, as a fight on the battlefield is nearly always over in an instant.

The sparring matches are exhibitions of technique and control. Perhaps the only recognizable difference between these and matches held in tournaments is the consistent power the soldiers put behind their blows and their concentration on hard taekwondo techniques rather than elusive ones.

Against Weapons

At last, a final group prepares to show what happens when an unarmed Tiger meets a VC with a knife or a bayonet fixed to his AK-47 rifle. Two pairs of soldiers stride to the center of the hard-dirt arena, face the commander and render a snappy salute. Then they fall into a four-man square and await orders.

Sgt. Lee barks a command, and the best of the best explode into action. One gladiator leaps for a knife that has been thrown into the arena. He jams it, hard, at another, who violently kicks the striking hand and jumps shoulder height, scissoring the attacker's neck and tumbling him forward onto the unyielding ground with a crash. The knife spins away.

Meanwhile, another black belt catches a rifle with a fixed bayonet that is thrown to him from the sidelines. With a guttural shout, he lunges for his opponent. The defender spins to the left, brings his knee sharply inward against the weapon and rolls the attacker onto his own shoulder while tearing at his windpipe. It's over in seconds.

The couples repeat the performance again and again, smashing full tilt against each other. Every time, the attacker thrusts hard with his weapon. It's just less than miraculous that the practice doesn't turn into a blood bath.

Korean Budomen

Initiated as the Capital Infantry Division, the Tiger Division was activated on June 20, 1949, in Seoul with the mission of providing security for the capital. It was charged with additional security of the 38th parallel in Ongjin in September of the same year. When the Korean War began on June 25, 1950, the division began to prove itself in heavy fighting during battles at Ahn-kang and Kyung-joo along the defense line of the Nakdong River in the southeastern part of the country.

Following the successful Inchon landing by Gen. Douglas MacArthur's forces, the division penetrated deep into the North across the 38th parallel, overrunning enemy strongholds and advancing close to the Korea-Manchuria border. As their ability became recognized, the division was committed repeatedly and saw the armistice signed while fighting at the front in the spring of 1952. They captured more than 9,920 enemy, killed more than 91,000 and seized more than 31,000 weapons. As a result of their valor, the division was awarded five ROK Presidential Citations and a U.S. Presidential Citation, an ROK National Assembly award and 42 other plaudits.

After the armistice, the division had already been dubbed with the Tiger laurel and was deployed along the front line of the central part of the Korea DMZ. They remained under continued training and constant combat readiness.

Upon approval of the National Assembly, the division was directed to combat in the Republic of Vietnam on August 20, 1965. Three separate elements arrived at Qui Nhon on November 1 after four weeks of preliminary training. That month, it received its tactical area of responsibility, which consisted of 1,400 square kilometers in Binh Dinh Province in central Vietnam. The division's general mission objectives are to protect travel routes, military installations and facilities within its TAOR and to assist the Republic of Vietnam in its pacification plan by eliminating Viet Cong in the area and helping the people rebuild their destroyed homes.

Since 1965, the Tiger Division has stabilized security within their area to an impressive degree. The TAOR itself has expanded from 1,400 to 3,800 square kilometers. As of mid-June, the Tigers had killed more than 9,000 enemy, captured nearly 3,000 and counted 4,500 defectors, as well as seizing nearly 4,000 weapons.

All this leaves little room for doubt about whom historians will count as the true elite of Vietnam combat. In the ranks of the VC and the NVA, mention of these ferocious Koreans brings shudders to the comrades. Even as he fights those from North Vietnam and the Viet Cong, the Tigerman knows that he has full command of his body and his mind. When he's faced with hand-to-hand combat, he need not rely only on the ferocity of his rifle to equalize the score. He can hammer out punches with machine-gun rapidity or swing a full-flogging kick with sufficient force to gain the advantage. When a man is trained in karate, or to be more specific, taekwondo, he's ahead of the game and the Viet Cong, that crap-shooting armada of insurgent forces, and the crack North Vietnamese troops who come to do battle. They know full well that the Tigers with their taekwondo as well as armaments are tough to beat.

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The roots of taekwondo are in Korea, and for the ROK GIs who enter the Tiger ranks, the intensive routine of training in the martial art is strictly par for the course. No doubt every Tigerman hopes to use his martial arts training sometime in a tournament as well as he does in combat. That's the dream of every GI in the ROK division.

The Tigers, under Maj. Gen. Lew Pyong Hyon and with taekwondo's Capt. Yoon, have been making headlines throughout the world. They are the only troops, it's been said, who fight fire with fire, who use guerrilla techniques and ambush techniques in much the same manner as the Viet Cong. In a war such as this — where the boundary lines are questionable, where there is no front line and where your neighbor can turn into your enemy — such techniques are indispensable. Thanks to the hand-to-hand techniques and the combat-karate emphasis of this militia, the odds are clearly shaping up in the Tiger Division's ledger. Thanks to taekwondo, the Tigers are smashing the enemy with no holds barred and, if anyone doubts it, plenty of contact!

Read Part 1 of this article here.

text by Jack E. Swift

(This article first appeared in the November 1968 issue of Black Belt.)

Scene: A group of soldiers is gathered for a bull session. The subject under discussion is the Tiger Division of the Korean army. The soldiers are engrossed. One, a lean, tanned GI, pushes back his beret, squints into the darkness and looks out to see a mountain of burning embers.

"We were on recon operations in southern Binh Dinh Province," he explains. "One night, we caught the sounds of a skirmish. My squad leader held up his hand and when he smiled, we knew we were in for some action. As we approached the area, we were a little surprised that there was no small-arms fire, but we could hear a lot of guys yelling.

"When we got there, it was an unbelievable sight. Here were those Korean troops in close-quarters combat with what must have been superior forces, as there were [Viet Cong soldiers] all over the place. I've never seen so many broken necks and caved-in ribs in my life. We helped clean up what was left."

So goes the legend, and just in case you're casting a cynical eye as to the Tiger Division's aptitude in the use of martial arts, the record speaks for itself. If there was ever a primer on combat karate, these troops would write it. In two grueling periods daily, every troop in the Tiger Division trains in the taekwondo method, the official karate of Korea.

At one time, there were many factions, but in the past year or so, they've all been absorbed by the International Taekwon-Do Federation, with its headquarters in Seoul. In fact, with the Koreans, and even in many areas in Vietnam, taekwondo is synonymous with karate. Numerous Vietnamese do not even understand the word "karate" — but mention taekwondo and their faces light up with recognition.

Way of Life

At Qui Nhon, division headquarters, visitors are surprised to see sparkling white uniforms — and a sea of black belts — virtually in the middle of a combat zone. While on actual operations away from their base, the Tigers work out in field gear, but at the training center, everyone wears a gi and keeps it as immaculate as any other military uniform.

On the left side of the gi, each person wears the proud division emblem of a roaring tiger. On the other side, if he's an instructor, the soldier wears a black insignia of a fist with white dots above indicating how many degrees of black-belt rank he holds.

Commander of the massive taekwondo corps of the Tiger Division is Capt. Yoon Dong Ho, himself a third dan. But the rugged, intelligent captain is no armchair commander. He's on hand daily at the dirt arena, watching the troops go through their paces and often teaching a special class of officers.

Capt. Yoon is responsible for the official taekwondo training of more than 15,000 Tiger troops in Vietnam. Although popular belief holds otherwise, there are actually more than 200 black-belt holders in the Tiger ranks. Of them, three are fourth dan, 29 are third dan, 57 are second dan and 115 are first dan. There are roughly 600 red belts and 2,300 blue belts, as well as 9,000 troops holding degrees of white belt. Approximately 2,900 men recently began their training in Vietnam. Many of these, of course, already hold rank they won in Korea.


Each element of the Tiger infantry arriving in Vietnam goes through intensive schooling at Qui Nhon. The 26th of these classes began in July, to run just over a month. The sessions lead off with classical techniques under the direct supervision of Sgt. Jun Jae Gun, head taekwondo instructor for the Meng Ho in Vietnam. Sgt. Jun, one of the division's tough trio of fourth degrees, displays a certificate signed by Gen. Choi Hong Hi, International Taekwon-Do Federation president.

When a trooper is promoted in Vietnam, however, he's awarded a military certificate of training by his supplement company commander, who acts as a representative of Lt. Col. Jai Chun Ko, division field commander. All promotions are recognized by the federation. In cases of promotion to the higher grades, however, special recognition is often meted out. For example, Sgt. Kim Duk Ki was recently awarded his third dan by Lt. Gen. Chae Myung Shin, field headquarters commander for all ROK Forces in Vietnam.

"The major objective of our formal taekwondo classes," asserted Cpt. Yoon, "is to take the minds of our troops and replace civilian thinking with military spirit and fierceness. 'Tiger' is the nickname the division has been tagged with because of the fierce nature we have demonstrated in combat. We intend to live up to it."

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Cpt. Yoon reinforced that statement with an impromptu demonstration of his own favorite techniques. Choosing a brawny trooper with a bayonet, the captain rushed him, parrying the weapon with an onslaught of power strikes with the elbow, palm, heel and fist. He ended with a forearm strike to the windpipe, which he explained is effective when one wants to silence the enemy quickly.

Key elements in hand-to-hand combat, the commander explained, are attacking the weapon directly or the hand that holds it while simultaneously attacking the most vulnerable spot within reach, then pressing the assault to keep the enemy off-balance while finishing him.

Field Testing

Stressing physical fitness in preparation for the application of these techniques, Cpt. Yoon said his troops rely heavily on powerful, smashing blows against the smaller Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Communists. He explained that the enemies are often undernourished because of their long treks from the North and therefore may fall easily under a strong attack.

"One particular situation where we encounter hand-to-hand fighting," Cpt. Yoon said, "is when the VC hide in bunkers and Tiger patrols do not have heavy weapons available to blow [the bunkers] apart. In such a case, the troops simply go in after them. The VC stand little chance against my men in close-quarters fighting."

In addition to the training of their own infantry, Tiger taekwondo instructors teach U.S. and Republic of Vietnam soldiers, as well as other Allied Forces infantry soldiers. Presently, some 1,250 Vietnamese and 150 U.S. soldiers are being taught by the Tigers at Qui Nhon alone. At other installations throughout South Vietnam, the Koreans teach their art to Allied Forces and Vietnamese civilians of both sexes and all ages.

There are scores of Korean black belts who are not members of the Tiger Division but who teach taekwondo to the local troopers and civilians. Many of these men belong to the larger White Horse Division. Especially in populated places such as the Tan Son Nhut Air Base–Saigon area, taekwondo has become as popular as baseball is to Americans. Today, self-defense is serious business to the Vietnamese, as no one knows when a VC terrorist squad will break into his home.

The Tiger Lair

Several miles away from the main training area on the Qui Nhon Air Base where the new arrivals hold classes, the Tiger instructors have their own compound, carved out of the verdant Vietnam countryside. Bordered on two sides by mountains and banked by the South China Sea, the encampment nestles into a serene and clean-smelling natural cradle, somehow out of place amidst the turmoil of war. The site has never been successfully attacked, and no one remembers the last time even a single mortar landed within the perimeter.

The perimeter itself is defined by roll upon roll of barbed wire, machine-gun posts and sandbag-reinforced bunkers. When not actually leading class, the instructors perform most of their military duties wearing their gi, often barebacked in the all-pervading heat. Somehow it doesn't seem quite right to see a fierce fighting man carting pails of water for the makeshift shower or spreading rolls of concertina wire — until you recall how budo masters of ancient times made their charges perform menial tasks before they would be accepted. Perhaps this accounts in part for their dedication and the respectful attitude the troops invariably display.

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Cpt. Yoon decides to review the instructors' training methods, so he has the select corps organize into a squadron to demonstrate their prowess. Sgt. Lee Jin Ho, whose official title is post instructor, leads the formation. They fall swiftly into ranks. The commander steps forward and receives the squadron's salute, then turns the command over to Sgt. Ho.

At a signal, the Tigers break ranks and rush into new formations with precision reminiscent of the Roman legions. The first squad is directed to show taekwondo forms. They snap through the kata in coordinated pairs, demonstrating the adroitness that can only come from military discipline. The forms are technically the same as classical Korean karate but are executed with the confident power of soldiers who have seen what their stuff can do to a man.

The next group forms behind a line of boards, bricks and tiles. Stacks of four and five bricks, up to 15 tiles and four 1-inch boards lie before them. The unit is called to attention, salutes again and assumes a ready posture. Sgt. Lee barks a command, and a dozen heads, hands and fists smash into the solid objects. Not a single one remains unbroken.

Read Part 2 here.

text by Jack E. Swift

(This article first appeared in the November 1968 issue of Black Belt.)

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