Isshin-ryu karate legend and Black Belt Hall of Fame member Gary Alexander has always been a get-on-the-mat-and-see-what-you-can-do kind of guy. Rugged and tough, this decorated Marine Corps veteran is the John Wayne of the martial arts world. In the late 1950s, he began making a name for himself by beating the top karate stylists in bare-knuckle sparring matches.

By taking on all comers, Gary Alexander helped his art become a respected form of unarmed combat; and by beating them to a pulp, he earned a reputation as the “hammer of isshin-ryu."

These days, the New Jersey-based Alexander is busier than ever teaching a modified version of isshin-ryu, which he simply refers to as “isshin-ryu plus." It is a hybrid system that just makes good sense: a solid foundation of original isshin-ryu upon which stands a unique blend of Alexander's own techniques and principles.

Those improvements make the system fit the practitioner, rather than forcing the practitioner to fit the system, he claims. The following are some of the major modernizations.

Potent Punch

Isshin-ryu plus teaches two essentials for maximizing the effectiveness of your punches: in-line chambering and piston-like delivery and recoil. To derive the greatest benefit from these improvements, you must bring your fist as far back and as high as you can — near the upper part of your rib cage — and you must align your elbow directly behind it. When you launch the punch, send it out and yank it back in the same way a piston moves inside a cylinder. Do not pause between the delivery and the retraction.

This isshin-ryu plus method differs from the more popular punching techniques that involve beginning the blow with your fist positioned near your face or hip. It is also different from those that allow you to hold your elbow low and out of alignment with your fist. Executing the strike with a misaligned elbow can lead to a loss of power and control because the punch will often skip off the target the same way the tip of a pool stick skips off the cue ball when the shooter has misaligned it.

The combination of in-line chambering and piston action allows you to attain pinpoint accuracy and maximum shock and penetration with your punch. You can fire the same technique over and over like a jackhammer while you maneuver for the best position, Alexander says.

Better Backfist

“When it comes to performing the backfist, a lot of people make the mistake of throwing it and executing the follow-through with their entire arm extended," Alexander says. “This will not only get your arm broken, but it will also make it easy for your adversary to block the technique. I've had my own arm broken at the elbow while doing the backfist the old-fashioned way — that's why I changed it."

To perform the backfist the isshin-ryu plus way, first aim the elbow of your striking arm at the target and move that fist to the opposite side of your head. Next, using a circular motion with your elbow at the center, unleash the technique and let your fist travel until it makes an impact, then retract it like a whip. Remember to move only your forearm. Although the backfist travels along an arc, the quick retraction will ensure that it is safe as well as effective.

To conceptualize how the whipping action can turn a ho-hum technique designed for tournaments into a devastating heavy hitter for the street, Alexander says, think about snapping someone with a towel. It's not the outward motion that plants a welt on the receiving end; rather, it's the snap that takes place once the tip of the towel reaches maximum extension.

Gnarly Knifehand

The knifehand Alexander incorporated into isshin-ryu plus is the vertical (or very slightly angled) version of the strike. To understand its mechanics, begin by swinging your open right hand up to the right side of your head. Then let the knifehand fly into the target using an arcing trajectory and the same piston-like delivery and retraction.

The related hammerfist strike of isshin-ryu plus is performed in the same manner, except with your hand closed. “In the old-fashioned method, centrifugal force is not emphasized and the techniques are much shorter and choppier," Alexander says. “That renders the strikes less effective than the way we do them."

Effective Elbow

The isshin-ryu plus elbow strike also employs centrifugal force and piston-like action, and the impact is made with the tip of the bone for maximum penetration.

To execute it, chamber the weapon by positioning your right fist near your right shoulder and leaving your elbow pointed downward. (Think of holding an ice cream cone in your hand and jamming it, ice cream first, into your shoulder.)

Your limb does not pause in this position; rather, the elbow immediately blasts upward or horizontally and is retracted. That keeps you from exposing yourself to a counterattack executed the moment you lock out the strike.

Combat Kicks

“In standard isshin-ryu and isshin-ryu plus, the kicks all chamber up and piston out and back," Alexander says. “But when you kick, you've got to be able to sneak your foot into the target. The average fighter's radar zone is about 45 degrees up, down and to the side. Since most kicks come at him inside his radar zone, he can easily block or grab your leg and take you to the ground.

“So you have to build a better mousetrap," Alexander continues. “Isshin-ryu plus uses different angles of attack — ones that most people don't see or use—and it teaches you to whip the kicks in at angles your opponent does not expect them to come from."

When doing the front snap kick and roundhouse kick, Alexander says, you should raise your knee high enough to use it as a kind of sighting device. That action should culminate with your calf muscle “bouncing off" your hamstring muscle, after which you let the kick fly. Do not attempt to kick to a level that is higher than the level at which you can point and hold your knee, he advises.

Order this classic now in the Black Belt Store!

When doing the isshin-ryu plus back kick, raise your knee and keep your lower leg parallel to the ground. Cock your foot high and hold it tight against your buttocks, then blast the kick out and back like a piston, Alexander says.

Corrected Kata

Naturally, isshin-ryu plus has a different take on kata (forms). “Many martial artists, especially those with little or no real combat time, practice their kata in a way that is diametrically opposed to the way they fight," Alexander says. “This amounts to a loss of precious training time.

“That's why isshin-ryu plus uses the 10 kata of standard isshin-ryu with slight modifications to the choreography," Alexander continues. “An example of one of those modifications is when a traditional movement puts the practitioner down on his knee; we stay up and just take a wider, lower-profile stance to maintain mobility."

This karate classic is still available — in the Black Belt Store!

Alexander's formulas for improved striking have also been incorporated into the kata of isshin-ryu plus. “By doing them the same way we fight, our movements stay fluid and relaxed," he says. “Our kata have a lot of fight in them, and they are done with the objective of enhancing the student's maneuverability and striking skills, and for learning effective strategies."

Inescapable Conclusion

After prevailing in numerous fistfights and a myriad of sparring matches, Gary Alexander created isshin-ryu plus as a combat-effective hybrid art for the 20th century. Drawing from his 40-plus years of training men, women and children from all walks of life — including numerous police officers and military personnel — he then honed it into the finely tuned system it is today.

As the world charges into the 21st century, Alexander remains confident that his art will continue to meet the needs of martial artists around the world who prefer to stay on the cutting edge of self-defense without abandoning their traditional karate roots.

Story by Floyd Burk

Isshin-ryu Karate as Gary Alexander Sees It

Like other popular karate systems that originated from the te jutsu (hand skills) of Okinawa, isshin-ryu employs hard-style kicks, punches and blocks, as well as extensive kata practice. In addition, there are some fundamentally unique qualities that set the style apart from others.

“One of the major differences is that we do our punches with a vertical fist instead of with the twisting-corkscrew punch used in styles such as goju-ryu and shotokan," Gary Alexander says. “And we snap the punch out and back, rather than lock it out like most other styles. We also add the snapping action to our blocks and kicks."

But the traditional version of the art has some drawbacks, Alexander claims. “The first that comes to mind is in the kicking. In isshin-ryu, kicks never go above the rib cage. This compounds a major weakness in the style, which is the idea that people with different body types — tall and lean, or short and stocky — should all fight the same way. This just doesn't make sense.

“My philosophy has always been that if you are forced to fight, you should attack your adversary by land, sea and air — use everything. Using a kick to the throat or head, you can knock a man clean out with one swift blow, so why not use it if you can? If you have the body structure to out-leverage your opponent and you like to get in close and execute, say, a powerful head butt to his nose, why not let it be part of your arsenal?"

If Alexander could change just one thing about traditional karate, it would be the closed-mindedness. “It's the old school of thinking, which goes something like, 'Nothing needs to be changed or improved upon,' and 'Each system of traditional karate has all the answers.' As ridiculous as those words are, they are still prevalent within the circle of martial artists who call themselves authentic isshin-ryu stylists."

5 Combat Tips from the Master

Defense is offense: Seek to inflict damage on your opponent with your blocking techniques and use them to create openings so you can launch effective counterattacks.

Never underestimate your opponent: Do not take your opponent too lightly; it could get you hurt or killed. Fight every opponent as though he were a highly trained master.

Don't stop at one: When you attack, use a sequence of at least five hits. The bad guy may block the first or second shot, but sooner or later one will get in.

Use typhooning: If you must fight multiple attackers or find yourself in a situation in which things get crazy, “typhooning" can save your life: Keep your hands and feet moving, shift your body, execute sweeps and trips, try to throw your opponent, and blast away with as many strikes as possible. The key is to overwhelm him.

Be true to your training: You must believe in what you are doing. No workout should be done in a sloppy fashion or like a weekend hobby. Stay true to your art by training as though your life depended on it.

Don't miss a single issue of the world largest magazine of martial arts.

To Master the Supreme Philosophy of Enshin Karate, Look to Musashi's Book of Five Rings for Guidance!

In the martial arts, we voluntarily subject ourselves to conflict in a training environment so we can transcend conflict in the real world. After all, we wouldn't knowingly train in a style that makes us weaker or worsens our position. The irony of all this is that we don't want to fight our opponent. We prefer to work with what an opponent gives us to turn the tide in our favor, to resolve the situation effectively and efficiently.The Japanese have a word for this: sabaki. It means to work with energy efficiently. When we train with the sabaki mindset, we receive our opponent's attack, almost as a gift. Doing so requires less physical effort and frees up our mental operating system so it can determine the most efficient solution to the conflict.In this essay, I will present a brief history of sabaki, as well as break down the sabaki method using Miyamoto Musashi's five elements

Keep Reading Show less

Enter our partner's current Sweepstakes. They are giving away a Grand Prize 'FKB Wardrobe'.


FIVE KNUCKLE BULLET 'Wardrobe' Sweepstakes

Feeling Lucky? Enter our current Sweepstakes Now! We are giving away a Grand Prize 'FKB Wardrobe' which consists of our most popular sportswear items. Prize includes the following:

Keep Reading Show less

"Unlike karate training outside a combat zone," Cpt. Yoon explained, "it is important here that the troops be able to turn their techniques into devastating, bone-crushing blows. There is no place for mild strikes in combat when a VC is trying to push a bayonet into your stomach."

For that reason, the compound is peppered with makiwara punching boards, and the Korean Tigers spend much time conditioning the weapons of taekwondo. Also, throughout Vietnam there are plenty of sandbags, which are used to protect all kinds of constructions. They make excellent striking bags for a karateman.

The next unit in the schedule is to display free fighting. The commander again explains that this form of fighting is used to test the Tigers' skills against one another rather than to demonstrate the actual methods of close-quarters combat, as a fight on the battlefield is nearly always over in an instant.

The sparring matches are exhibitions of technique and control. Perhaps the only recognizable difference between these and matches held in tournaments is the consistent power the soldiers put behind their blows and their concentration on hard taekwondo techniques rather than elusive ones.

Against Weapons

At last, a final group prepares to show what happens when an unarmed Tiger meets a VC with a knife or a bayonet fixed to his AK-47 rifle. Two pairs of soldiers stride to the center of the hard-dirt arena, face the commander and render a snappy salute. Then they fall into a four-man square and await orders.

Sgt. Lee barks a command, and the best of the best explode into action. One gladiator leaps for a knife that has been thrown into the arena. He jams it, hard, at another, who violently kicks the striking hand and jumps shoulder height, scissoring the attacker's neck and tumbling him forward onto the unyielding ground with a crash. The knife spins away.

Meanwhile, another black belt catches a rifle with a fixed bayonet that is thrown to him from the sidelines. With a guttural shout, he lunges for his opponent. The defender spins to the left, brings his knee sharply inward against the weapon and rolls the attacker onto his own shoulder while tearing at his windpipe. It's over in seconds.

The couples repeat the performance again and again, smashing full tilt against each other. Every time, the attacker thrusts hard with his weapon. It's just less than miraculous that the practice doesn't turn into a blood bath.

Korean Budomen

Initiated as the Capital Infantry Division, the Tiger Division was activated on June 20, 1949, in Seoul with the mission of providing security for the capital. It was charged with additional security of the 38th parallel in Ongjin in September of the same year. When the Korean War began on June 25, 1950, the division began to prove itself in heavy fighting during battles at Ahn-kang and Kyung-joo along the defense line of the Nakdong River in the southeastern part of the country.

Following the successful Inchon landing by Gen. Douglas MacArthur's forces, the division penetrated deep into the North across the 38th parallel, overrunning enemy strongholds and advancing close to the Korea-Manchuria border. As their ability became recognized, the division was committed repeatedly and saw the armistice signed while fighting at the front in the spring of 1952. They captured more than 9,920 enemy, killed more than 91,000 and seized more than 31,000 weapons. As a result of their valor, the division was awarded five ROK Presidential Citations and a U.S. Presidential Citation, an ROK National Assembly award and 42 other plaudits.

After the armistice, the division had already been dubbed with the Tiger laurel and was deployed along the front line of the central part of the Korea DMZ. They remained under continued training and constant combat readiness.

Upon approval of the National Assembly, the division was directed to combat in the Republic of Vietnam on August 20, 1965. Three separate elements arrived at Qui Nhon on November 1 after four weeks of preliminary training. That month, it received its tactical area of responsibility, which consisted of 1,400 square kilometers in Binh Dinh Province in central Vietnam. The division's general mission objectives are to protect travel routes, military installations and facilities within its TAOR and to assist the Republic of Vietnam in its pacification plan by eliminating Viet Cong in the area and helping the people rebuild their destroyed homes.

Since 1965, the Tiger Division has stabilized security within their area to an impressive degree. The TAOR itself has expanded from 1,400 to 3,800 square kilometers. As of mid-June, the Tigers had killed more than 9,000 enemy, captured nearly 3,000 and counted 4,500 defectors, as well as seizing nearly 4,000 weapons.

All this leaves little room for doubt about whom historians will count as the true elite of Vietnam combat. In the ranks of the VC and the NVA, mention of these ferocious Koreans brings shudders to the comrades. Even as he fights those from North Vietnam and the Viet Cong, the Tigerman knows that he has full command of his body and his mind. When he's faced with hand-to-hand combat, he need not rely only on the ferocity of his rifle to equalize the score. He can hammer out punches with machine-gun rapidity or swing a full-flogging kick with sufficient force to gain the advantage. When a man is trained in karate, or to be more specific, taekwondo, he's ahead of the game and the Viet Cong, that crap-shooting armada of insurgent forces, and the crack North Vietnamese troops who come to do battle. They know full well that the Tigers with their taekwondo as well as armaments are tough to beat.

Kelly McCann's best-selling Combatives for Street Survival is available here!

The roots of taekwondo are in Korea, and for the ROK GIs who enter the Tiger ranks, the intensive routine of training in the martial art is strictly par for the course. No doubt every Tigerman hopes to use his martial arts training sometime in a tournament as well as he does in combat. That's the dream of every GI in the ROK division.

The Tigers, under Maj. Gen. Lew Pyong Hyon and with taekwondo's Capt. Yoon, have been making headlines throughout the world. They are the only troops, it's been said, who fight fire with fire, who use guerrilla techniques and ambush techniques in much the same manner as the Viet Cong. In a war such as this — where the boundary lines are questionable, where there is no front line and where your neighbor can turn into your enemy — such techniques are indispensable. Thanks to the hand-to-hand techniques and the combat-karate emphasis of this militia, the odds are clearly shaping up in the Tiger Division's ledger. Thanks to taekwondo, the Tigers are smashing the enemy with no holds barred and, if anyone doubts it, plenty of contact!

Read Part 1 of this article here.

text by Jack E. Swift

(This article first appeared in the November 1968 issue of Black Belt.)

Scene: A group of soldiers is gathered for a bull session. The subject under discussion is the Tiger Division of the Korean army. The soldiers are engrossed. One, a lean, tanned GI, pushes back his beret, squints into the darkness and looks out to see a mountain of burning embers.

"We were on recon operations in southern Binh Dinh Province," he explains. "One night, we caught the sounds of a skirmish. My squad leader held up his hand and when he smiled, we knew we were in for some action. As we approached the area, we were a little surprised that there was no small-arms fire, but we could hear a lot of guys yelling.

"When we got there, it was an unbelievable sight. Here were those Korean troops in close-quarters combat with what must have been superior forces, as there were [Viet Cong soldiers] all over the place. I've never seen so many broken necks and caved-in ribs in my life. We helped clean up what was left."

So goes the legend, and just in case you're casting a cynical eye as to the Tiger Division's aptitude in the use of martial arts, the record speaks for itself. If there was ever a primer on combat karate, these troops would write it. In two grueling periods daily, every troop in the Tiger Division trains in the taekwondo method, the official karate of Korea.

At one time, there were many factions, but in the past year or so, they've all been absorbed by the International Taekwon-Do Federation, with its headquarters in Seoul. In fact, with the Koreans, and even in many areas in Vietnam, taekwondo is synonymous with karate. Numerous Vietnamese do not even understand the word "karate" — but mention taekwondo and their faces light up with recognition.

Way of Life

At Qui Nhon, division headquarters, visitors are surprised to see sparkling white uniforms — and a sea of black belts — virtually in the middle of a combat zone. While on actual operations away from their base, the Tigers work out in field gear, but at the training center, everyone wears a gi and keeps it as immaculate as any other military uniform.

On the left side of the gi, each person wears the proud division emblem of a roaring tiger. On the other side, if he's an instructor, the soldier wears a black insignia of a fist with white dots above indicating how many degrees of black-belt rank he holds.

Commander of the massive taekwondo corps of the Tiger Division is Capt. Yoon Dong Ho, himself a third dan. But the rugged, intelligent captain is no armchair commander. He's on hand daily at the dirt arena, watching the troops go through their paces and often teaching a special class of officers.

Capt. Yoon is responsible for the official taekwondo training of more than 15,000 Tiger troops in Vietnam. Although popular belief holds otherwise, there are actually more than 200 black-belt holders in the Tiger ranks. Of them, three are fourth dan, 29 are third dan, 57 are second dan and 115 are first dan. There are roughly 600 red belts and 2,300 blue belts, as well as 9,000 troops holding degrees of white belt. Approximately 2,900 men recently began their training in Vietnam. Many of these, of course, already hold rank they won in Korea.


Each element of the Tiger infantry arriving in Vietnam goes through intensive schooling at Qui Nhon. The 26th of these classes began in July, to run just over a month. The sessions lead off with classical techniques under the direct supervision of Sgt. Jun Jae Gun, head taekwondo instructor for the Meng Ho in Vietnam. Sgt. Jun, one of the division's tough trio of fourth degrees, displays a certificate signed by Gen. Choi Hong Hi, International Taekwon-Do Federation president.

When a trooper is promoted in Vietnam, however, he's awarded a military certificate of training by his supplement company commander, who acts as a representative of Lt. Col. Jai Chun Ko, division field commander. All promotions are recognized by the federation. In cases of promotion to the higher grades, however, special recognition is often meted out. For example, Sgt. Kim Duk Ki was recently awarded his third dan by Lt. Gen. Chae Myung Shin, field headquarters commander for all ROK Forces in Vietnam.

"The major objective of our formal taekwondo classes," asserted Cpt. Yoon, "is to take the minds of our troops and replace civilian thinking with military spirit and fierceness. 'Tiger' is the nickname the division has been tagged with because of the fierce nature we have demonstrated in combat. We intend to live up to it."

Click here to check out Combat Hapkido, a book by John Pellegrini and Black Belt mag!

Cpt. Yoon reinforced that statement with an impromptu demonstration of his own favorite techniques. Choosing a brawny trooper with a bayonet, the captain rushed him, parrying the weapon with an onslaught of power strikes with the elbow, palm, heel and fist. He ended with a forearm strike to the windpipe, which he explained is effective when one wants to silence the enemy quickly.

Key elements in hand-to-hand combat, the commander explained, are attacking the weapon directly or the hand that holds it while simultaneously attacking the most vulnerable spot within reach, then pressing the assault to keep the enemy off-balance while finishing him.

Field Testing

Stressing physical fitness in preparation for the application of these techniques, Cpt. Yoon said his troops rely heavily on powerful, smashing blows against the smaller Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Communists. He explained that the enemies are often undernourished because of their long treks from the North and therefore may fall easily under a strong attack.

"One particular situation where we encounter hand-to-hand fighting," Cpt. Yoon said, "is when the VC hide in bunkers and Tiger patrols do not have heavy weapons available to blow [the bunkers] apart. In such a case, the troops simply go in after them. The VC stand little chance against my men in close-quarters fighting."

In addition to the training of their own infantry, Tiger taekwondo instructors teach U.S. and Republic of Vietnam soldiers, as well as other Allied Forces infantry soldiers. Presently, some 1,250 Vietnamese and 150 U.S. soldiers are being taught by the Tigers at Qui Nhon alone. At other installations throughout South Vietnam, the Koreans teach their art to Allied Forces and Vietnamese civilians of both sexes and all ages.

There are scores of Korean black belts who are not members of the Tiger Division but who teach taekwondo to the local troopers and civilians. Many of these men belong to the larger White Horse Division. Especially in populated places such as the Tan Son Nhut Air Base–Saigon area, taekwondo has become as popular as baseball is to Americans. Today, self-defense is serious business to the Vietnamese, as no one knows when a VC terrorist squad will break into his home.

The Tiger Lair

Several miles away from the main training area on the Qui Nhon Air Base where the new arrivals hold classes, the Tiger instructors have their own compound, carved out of the verdant Vietnam countryside. Bordered on two sides by mountains and banked by the South China Sea, the encampment nestles into a serene and clean-smelling natural cradle, somehow out of place amidst the turmoil of war. The site has never been successfully attacked, and no one remembers the last time even a single mortar landed within the perimeter.

The perimeter itself is defined by roll upon roll of barbed wire, machine-gun posts and sandbag-reinforced bunkers. When not actually leading class, the instructors perform most of their military duties wearing their gi, often barebacked in the all-pervading heat. Somehow it doesn't seem quite right to see a fierce fighting man carting pails of water for the makeshift shower or spreading rolls of concertina wire — until you recall how budo masters of ancient times made their charges perform menial tasks before they would be accepted. Perhaps this accounts in part for their dedication and the respectful attitude the troops invariably display.

Get the scoop on military martial arts with The Complete Michael D. Echanis Collection!

Cpt. Yoon decides to review the instructors' training methods, so he has the select corps organize into a squadron to demonstrate their prowess. Sgt. Lee Jin Ho, whose official title is post instructor, leads the formation. They fall swiftly into ranks. The commander steps forward and receives the squadron's salute, then turns the command over to Sgt. Ho.

At a signal, the Tigers break ranks and rush into new formations with precision reminiscent of the Roman legions. The first squad is directed to show taekwondo forms. They snap through the kata in coordinated pairs, demonstrating the adroitness that can only come from military discipline. The forms are technically the same as classical Korean karate but are executed with the confident power of soldiers who have seen what their stuff can do to a man.

The next group forms behind a line of boards, bricks and tiles. Stacks of four and five bricks, up to 15 tiles and four 1-inch boards lie before them. The unit is called to attention, salutes again and assumes a ready posture. Sgt. Lee barks a command, and a dozen heads, hands and fists smash into the solid objects. Not a single one remains unbroken.

Read Part 2 here.

text by Jack E. Swift

(This article first appeared in the November 1968 issue of Black Belt.)

Free Bruce Lee Guide
Have you ever wondered how Bruce Lee’s boxing influenced his jeet kune do techniques? Read all about it in this free guide.
Don’t miss a thing Subscribe to Our Newsletter